France limits how high parking minimums can be set

When you use this in your parking change-making efforts, please give credit to Parking Reform Atlas and/or its sources.

 

Do you see an error? Have a comment? There is a feedback form here

Brief summary of this reform

The National Government of France generally allows local governments to set minimum parking requirements but limits how high they can be set ("roofed minimums") for some housing.

These limits on the level of parking minimums are lowest for social housing, student housing and housing for elderly. There are also limits on the level of parking minimums for all housing near quality public transport.

Parking maximums are allowed "when the conditions of service by regular public transport allow it" but only for non-residential land-uses.

Why should you care?

Higher levels of government are increasingly interested in setting limits on the ability of local government to set excessive minimum parking requirements. This is an important example.

This policy sometimes gets confused with parking maximums. Limiting the level of parking minimums that municipalities may set is NOT the same as a policy of imposing parking maximums.

Country

France

Vehicle type

cars

State/province

Key actor type

National

Jurisdiction

France

Primary motivation

Unknown

Agencies involved

Relevant agencies in the National Government established the law.

Is it a model or a warning?

useful model

Reform type

Main parking category

Main parking paradigm shift

minimums harm reduction

Off-street various

Away from excessive parking supply

Adaptive Parking thrust

Implementation status

Year adopted

R: Relax about parking supply and stop boosting it

implemented

Goals of the reform

This law does not forbid parking minimums. Nor does it mandate parking maximums. But it does prevent local governments from imposing inappropriate and excessive parking minimums for certain kinds of housing and for all housing near quality public transport.

Impetus (what problem, campaign, opportunity or event prompted action?)

If you know the impetus for this policy, please let me know using the form on the "how to help" page.

Detailed description of the reform

The National Government of France generally allows local governments to set minimum parking requirements but limits how high they can be set ("roofed minimums"), at least for some housing.

The relevant law is France's Town planning code : Paragraph 3: Parking (Code de l'urbanisme : Paragraphe 3 : Stationnement) Articles L151-30 to L151-37.

For residential generally, the limitation on the parking minimums that are allowed (of 1 per housing unit) applies only for housing within 500 metres of quality public transport. (Article L151-36)

For specified types of social housing, student housing and housing for elderly, the limits on the level of parking minimums are set to 0.5 spaces per dwelling for such housing near quality public transport and to 1 per dwelling elswhere. (Articles L151-34 and 35)

Parking maximums are allowed "when the conditions of service by regular public transport allow it" but only for non-residential land-uses.

The same law also requires local governments in France to accept off-site parking to meet minimum parking requirements. Developers who cannot meet the requirement on-site may meet if off-site by "either obtaining a long-term concession in an existing public parking lot or in the process of being built and located near the operation, or the acquisition or concession of spaces in a private park parking spaces meeting the same conditions" (Code de l'urbanisme : Paragraphe 3 : Stationnement, Article L151-33).

Results or impacts

Please let me know if you have information on the results of this policy.

Sources and acknowledgements

I was alerted to this policy by the 2021 CIVITAS Initiative Park4SUMP report, "Parking standards as steering instrument in urban and mobility planning. How to make parking standards more sustainable." (authors: Gies, Jürgen; Hertel, Martina; Tully, Susan). https://park4sump.eu/news-events/news/improving-parking-standards-sustainable-mobility

France Town planning code : Paragraph 3: Parking (Articles L151-30 to L151-37) https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/codes/section_lc/LEGITEXT000006074075/LEGISCTA000031211225/

Image credit: A relatively new small apartment building near an RER station in southern Paris. Google Street View https://www.google.com.sg/maps/@48.8070446,2.3357872,3a,75y,334.81h,105.06t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sDLP97Y3RKGsJpyUeu4YNXA!2e0!7i16384!8i8192!5m1!1e2?hl=en&authuser=0

Painted Greek Island

Last updated: 

5 Apr 2021